Over the past several thousand years, diabetes has been and remains a constant companion of humanity. So far, all attempts to get rid of him have not brought much success.
Diabetes is an autoimmune disease. Its essence lies in the inability of the body to maintain the required level of glucose in the blood due to the attack of the immune system on the beta cells of the pancreas. Today, there are two types of this disease - type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes is also known to be a lifelong condition diagnosed in children and adolescents. In contrast, type 2 diabetes is usually acquired and much more common. It accounts for up to 90% of all cases of the disease. At risk are people over 40-45 years old with a hereditary predisposition to the disease, obese and metabolic problems.
The results of a recent study conducted by scientists at the University of Exeter (UK) showed that it turns out that type 1 diabetes is not one disease, but is divided into two previously unknown subtypes - T1DE 1 and T1DE 2, which have significant differences.
So T1DE 1 indicates a malfunction of the cells of the pancreas, which are responsible for the production of insulin in children under 7 years of age. T1DE 2 is diagnosed in children from the age of 13. The difference between the two lies in the amount of proinsulin, the insulin precursor produced by the beta cells of the pancreas. According to the researchers, children between the ages of 7 and 13 can catch any of these diseases.
Elizabeth Robertson, Research Director of Diabetes UK, commented on the results of the scientists' work:
“The era when we can stop the immune attack that causes type 1 diabetes is already within our grasp. But in order for the treatment to become effective, it is necessary to really understand the peculiarities of this process. "