If you can accurately weigh a galaxy, you can estimate the weight of the universe, and this is the key to many important studies. But how to measure the weight of all matter, at least in the native Milky Way? The previous methods only quarreled astrophysicists among themselves because of the incredible range of answers, but now a new method has been found that satisfies everyone.
The weight of a galaxy can be measured through the gravitational force that this colossal cosmic body creates. If we assume that a galaxy is a homogeneous object, a source of stable gravitational thrust, then we can measure it through analyzing the behavior of tracers. This is the name of the "wreckage" of the former worlds, which were not included in the composition of galaxies, but are drawn to them due to the gravitational effect. It's like measuring the speed of a shark through the maneuvers of sticking fish moving behind it.
The problem is that all tracers are different in size and weight, they also have any orbits, and previous estimates of the galaxy's weight gave a spread from 0.7 to 2 trillion solar masses. The new method is based on measuring the angular momentum of the tracers, which characterizes their elliptical flight through space in accordance with the influence of the Milky Way's gravity.
The method formed the basis for a large model of activity in the Universe around the Milky Way over the past 2 billion years. And it allowed us to calculate the mass of our galaxy as 960 billion solar masses. This corresponds to about 50% of all past estimates, and such a result has been accepted by the scientific community. The next step in the calculation is to weigh the entire Universe!