The limitations of Moore's Law can be circumvented by using a combination of traditional principles of chip design and the latest discoveries in nanotechnology. Massachusetts Institute of Technology is learning how to create printed circuit boards using innovative materials that, for lack of a better version, are still called "copolymers."
"Copolymer" is a composite material in which long chains of molecules are formed from two different starting polymers. They are obtained by the old, well-studied method, by depositing the evaporated working substance on a cold substrate preliminarily etched with an electron beam. The difference is that after polymerization, the copolymers independently form not one, but four lines that follow the original pattern.
Simply put, instead of one "thick" track, four "thin" tracks with identical properties are formed on the board. And if we revise the architecture of the chip taking into account the new realities, then we can create microcircuits four times more productive while maintaining the same size. In theory. In practice, while scientists are keenly interested in the very possibility of working with objects less than 10 nm in size without significant costs.
Top - regular tracks, in the middle and bottom - tracks obtained with copolymers
We have learned to invade the nano-universe and even change something there at our discretion, but so far this is just too costly games for scientists. And the copolymer method is excellent for its implementation in existing production facilities. In fact, it is only necessary to slightly modernize the lithographic equipment and then the way will open for us to full-scale work with nanotechnology.