In recent years, the fight against pathogens of dangerous infections has become much more complicated due to the formation of their so-called multidrug resistance. For example, some pathogenic fungi “respond” to the emergence of a new antibiotic with another mutation, which makes them invulnerable.
A group of microbiological scientists from Moscow State University managed to come close to understanding the mechanism of formation of resistance to drugs in pathogenic fungi. The main "merit" in this belongs to the special membrane enzymes of the cell, which experts also call ABC-carriers.
Their main function is comparable to that of a bouncer. As soon as an antifungal drug appears, a lightning-fast reaction immediately follows and its molecules are literally thrown out of the cell. A mutation is gradually formed, which gives a powerful impetus to the reproduction of the fungus. He begins to rapidly capture the surrounding space, which previously belonged to microorganisms that could not cope with antifungal agents - antimycotics.
For a more detailed study of intracellular reactions when exposed to antifungal drugs, scientists used bread yeast, which they treated with antimycotics and special pigments that react to an external source of radiation with a fluorescent glow, which made it possible for experimenters to control everything that happens inside the yeast.
As it turned out, all attempts by ABC-carriers to displace the luminous pigments ended in vain. Possessing high hydrophilicity (the ability of a substance to interact with water at the molecular level), enzyme molecules returned to the membrane of the fungal cell.
According to scientists, the results of their research will help in the fight against fungal infections that cause various skin diseases.