The history of the creation of antibiotics is almost 75 years old. Today it is one of the most numerous and accessible types of drugs, which, paradoxically, makes antibiotics less and less effective every year. The reason is their uncontrolled use and the ability of bacteria to adapt to them. Perhaps the most striking example of this is the causative agent of tuberculosis, which has become practically incurable.
Over the past decades, most infectious bacteria have developed three levels of defense. The first level is disguise. The bacterium, changing its structure, as if pretends to be a "rag" and the antibiotic ceases to notice it. The second level is represented by a special protective shell, which turns out to be too tough for the medicinal product. And at the third level, the bacterium sucks it in, like a pump, and then “spits it out”, having previously neutralized it with the help of special enzymes - enzymes.
Recently, microbiologists Jérôme Guillemont and Cohen Andris have created a unique antibiotic called bedakilin. The mechanism of its action on bacteria is to block the energy supply, which inevitably leads to their death. And most importantly, pathogenic bacteria are absolutely defenseless against bedakilin.
Another drug created by Japanese scientists in the 80s - lactivicin successfully fights pneumococcal bacteria containing a lactam ring. The main problem with lactivicin is its high toxicity, which scientists are likely to overcome over time.
So, science is on the verge of creating fundamentally new types of antibiotics, with the help of which the fight against infections will become effective again.