NASA summed up the results of the "3D-Printed Habitat Challenge" competition, which was launched in 2015 and aimed to develop a concept for a living module for an alien base. All three winners are American teams that will receive $ 100, 000 each. They have developed the design, architecture and construction technology for three different "Martian houses".
The first project from the SEArch + / Apis Cor team is a multi-purpose vertical structure, a cross between a tower and a multi-storey building. They use a passive lighting system, contain self-contained life support systems, and have versatile exterior wall cladding. It can be strengthened almost indefinitely by mounting simple 3D printed elements on top.
The highlight of the second project from Team Zopherus is using the maximum amount of local, Martian raw materials. From sand and dust, with the addition of reagents, a kind of concrete is made with a wide range of functions. It serves as both thermal protection, and a decorative element, and the main material for walls and ceilings. Only frames or raw materials for their 3D printing will need to be brought from Earth, the rest of the colonists will do on the spot.
The third place went to the Mars Incubator team, which developed "universal hexagons" - the basic elements from which any building is assembled. It is enough just to print the required core and insert it into a typical frame to get a door, window, rack with devices, etc., which are then assembled into three-dimensional structures.